By Husain Haqqani
Among U.S. allies within the warfare opposed to terrorism, Pakistan can't be simply characterised as both pal or foe. Nuclear-armed Pakistan is a vital heart of radical Islamic rules and teams. when you consider that Sep 11, the selective cooperation of president basic Pervez Musharraf in sharing intelligence with the U.S. and apprehending al Qaeda individuals has ended in the belief that Pakistan will be able to hand over its longstanding ties with radical Islam. yet Pakistan's prestige as an Islamic ideological nation is heavily associated with the Pakistani elite's worldview and the praetorian objectives of its army. This e-book analyzes the origins of the relationships among Islamist teams and Pakistan's army, and explores the nation's quest for identification and defense. Tracing how the army has sought U.S. aid by way of making itself important for issues of the moment—while carrying on with to bolster the mosque-military alliance inside of Pakistan—Haqqani deals an alternate view of political advancements because the country's independence in 1947.
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Additional resources for Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military
S. and Arab states Pakistani goals Pashtun tribal components proxy warfare opposed to Pakistan refugees in Pakistan highway construction Soviet impact Soviet invasion and warfare Soviet withdrawal Taraki executive education camps Unocal pipeline U. S. ambassador assassination U. S. forget in the course of Fifties U. S. aid opposed to Soviet Union See additionally mujahideen; Pashtuns; Taliban; warfare on terrorism agricultural creation Ahmad, Khurshid Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam Ahmadi sect Ahmad Khan, Sir Syed Ahmed, Imtiaz Ahsan, Admiral S.
Forty three Barbara Crossette, “Gandhi stopover at to Pakistan: Hopes for a brand new Era,” long island instances, December 29, 1988. forty four Akhund, Trial and mistake, pp. 90-91. forty five Crossette, “Gandhi stopover at to Pakistan. ” forty six Akhund, Trial and blunder, pp. 92-94. forty seven Author’s cell dialog with Benazir Bhutto, November 23, 2004. Bhutto used to be in Dubai. forty eight Akhund, Trial and mistake, p. sixty one. forty nine Ibid. 50 Lawrence Ziring, “Pakistan in 1990: the autumn of Benazir Bhutto,” Asian Survey , vol. 31, no. 2 (February 1991), p. 116. fifty one Author’s mobile dialog with Benazir Bhutto, November 23, 2004.
Led coalition opposed to terrorism. As time handed, Musharraf used to be coerced or persuaded by way of the us to extend intelligence sharing opposed to jihadi teams associated with Al Qaeda, close down the infiltration of militants around the Line of keep watch over into Indian-controlled Kashmir, and sign up for a peace procedure with India. towards the top of 2003, after info surfaced approximately Pakistan’s covert revenues of nuclear expertise to Iran, North Korea, and Libya, Musharraf additionally needed to close down the clandestine nuclear revenues community headed through Pakistani scientist Dr.
The respectable Pakistani argument, supported sometimes by means of American students, has been:Pakistan performed a serious position within the historical defeat of the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. It risked its personal balance through accepting three. five million Afghan refugees and via serving as a conduit for fingers shipments from the USA to the Mujahideen. It has now not but recovered from the aftershock of this company. a lot of the drug site visitors, smuggling, and terrorism may be attributed to this function within the Afghan obstacle.
157 by way of the summer season of 1996, Jamaat-e-Islami’s crusade opposed to the govt. grew to become violent, resulting in the dying of 3 occasion activists in clashes with police in June. In July, 9 competition events, together with Sharif’s PML and the Jamaat-e-Islami, known as for a strike that paralyzed in Karachi. The competition alliance elevated to 14 events, together with the MQM and elevated agitation for Bhutto’s removing. a sequence of unexplained bomb blasts and sectarian killings undefined. Murtaza Bhutto’s demise in an alleged trade of fireplace with the police irritated the influence of Bhutto now not being in charge of the family scenario.